Types of stones in general urology
A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine.
Kidney as an important organ of urology.A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. There are four types of stones: uric acid, struvite, cystine, and calcium oxalate.
The second most common type of stone forms when uric acid levels are high. Dehydration, gout and various types of chemotherapy can raise uric acid levels.
Chronic urinary tract infections are associated with struvite stones. Various bacteria — including Proteious and E.coli — can raise the pH level of urine and cause stones to form.
A hereditary disorder called cystinuria can cause excess urinary cystine.
The most common kidney stones are made up of calcium, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance in food such as chocolate and nuts, but only a small percentage of people get stones due to excess calcium intake.